Important philosophical discussion of covert racism, whereby people may express racial antipathy in their behavior without being aware of or endorsing such attitudes.
Excellent brief summary of the theory and evidence of how discrimination works through unconscious cognitive biases--stereotypes, attributions, ingroup preference, etc. Surveys extensive empirical evidence for the phenomenon of "aversive racism", a form of covert racism whereby self-described colorblind individuals manifest racially discriminatory attitudes and behaviors of which they are unaware.
The policy is outdated, however, and causes a form of reverse discrimination by favoring one group over another, based on racial preference rather than academic achievement. It begins with a recognition that Americans live in a profoundly segregated society, a condition inconsistent with a fully democratic society and with equal opportunity.
The negative side, which my partner an Rachels was less confident than Warren that preferences worked uniformly accurate offsets.
Compensatory affirmative action aims to compensate people for past discrimination and its effects. This kind of program treats each applicant as an individual in the admissions process Bakke, at — Toward a New Politics of Hispanic Assimilation.
This left the fourth reason. Most elected the second path.
Rather, the credentials reflect their mere luck at being born white. Although often operating with large sets of information, researchers must decide which statistical models most appropriately tease out significance, decisions that involve debatable assumptions about filling in missing pieces.
When I was growing up I fou There are programs stating that if men and women have equal qualifications, women have to be preferred for a job; moreover, the disabled should be preferred to non-disabled people.
The American Stratification System. Blames the welfare state for inculcating dependency, bad behavior, and consequently poverty in blacks and the underclass because of its perverse incentives and destruction of moral standards. After running out of convenient excuses, I finally relented.
In fact, at the schools they studied, the better the institution a student entered, whatever his academic credentials, the more likely he was to graduate, go on to further education, and earn a good income Bowen and Bok63,Inthe Court of Appeals for the First Circuit struck down a Boston plan assigning students to selective high schools by race.
If you need a single source covering it all, this is it. Classic paper defending a group-based view of equal protection; advocating group remedies as solutions to group-based harms.
The debate was in the format of a Town Hall debate. This kind of program treats each applicant as an individual in the admissions process Bakke, at — The discrimination-blocking model of affirmative action did not arise from any fundamental theories of justice, but from the experience of administrative agencies charged with enforcing antidiscrimination laws.
A consideration of touchy matters -- racial pride, racial solidarity, and racial loyalty -- rarely discussed ," The Atlantic, May The Montague volume in which this appears collects many important articles from the postwar scientific critique of "scientific" racism.
Simply giving blanket preferences to African-Americans or women seemed much too ham-handed an approach if the point was to micro-distribute opportunities fairly Sherff. He is very abusive towards her, like when they were in the hotel room and Even so, contended Powell, the Court, has never approved a classification that aids persons perceived as members of relatively victimized groups at the expense of other innocent individuals in the absence of judicial, legislative, or administrative findings of constitutional or statutory violations Bakke, at.
For federal contractors and subcontractors, affirmative action must be taken by covered employers to recruit and advance qualified minorities, women, persons with disabilities, and covered veterans.
Affirmative actions include training programs, outreach efforts, and other positive steps. Affirmative action began as a government remedy to the effects of long-standing discrimination against such groups and has consisted of policies, programs, and procedures that give preferences to minorities and women in job hiring, admission to institutions of higher education, the awarding of government contracts, and other social benefits.
Race, Gender, and Affirmative Action Resource Page for Teaching and Study Updated July Introduction This is an annotated bibliography of resources on race, gender, and affirmative action intended for the use of faculty who are designing courses concerning race, gender, and affirmative action, and for students and browsers.
Mills, Nicolaus (ed.),Debating Affirmative Action: Race, Gender, Ethnicity, and the Politics of Inclusion, New York: Dell Publishing.
Mosley, Albert G.,“Policies of Straw or Policies of Inclusion? A Review of Pojman’s ‘Case against Affirmative Action’,” International Journal of. “Affirmative action” means positive steps taken to increase the representation of women and minorities in areas of employment, education, and culture from which they have been historically excluded.
Affirmative Action's Origins and History. In ten pages this paper discusses Affirmative Action in an overview of its origins and its historical evolution.An introduction to the opposing views of the affirmative action program